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The main church in Petra is recognized as the second church in the area, following the conversion of the Jarrah Shrine into a church in 446. This church comprises a structure with three porticoes, measuring 28 meters in length and 17 meters in width. Additionally, it features a courtyard, a tower on the western side, and side rooms on the north and east. Notably, the church’s floor is adorned with mosaics in the northern and southern porticoes, while the middle portico boasts a marble floor. The mosaic designs encompass geometric patterns, animal depictions, and illustrations representing the four seasons, as well as the gods of the sea and the earth. The western wall of the building contains three niches and three entrances. Some sections of the walls, standing at a height of 3 meters, remain intact and date back to the construction of the church. It is believed that the church was most likely built until the late fifth century AD, but it was later destroyed by either a fire or an earthquake in the mid-sixth century AD. Many decorative stones from previous structures in Petra were utilized in its construction.

The significance of the church is evident in its mosaic floors. The northern portico’s floor is adorned with three rows of circles, showcasing various depictions of animals, birds, vessels, and people. On the other hand, the southern portico’s floor features two rows of circles, displaying animal images on the eastern side and geometric shapes on the western side. The middle row of the southern portico’s floor contains human images symbolizing the four seasons, the sea, the earth, and wisdom. The two side rows, meanwhile, exhibit images of animals and fish. Apart from the mosaic floors, numerous wall mosaics have been discovered, some of which depict human figures and occasionally incorporate gilded cubes. Fragments of glass from the upper windows have also been found, indicating the grandeur of the church.

The Petra Church has provided us with exceptional examples of marble church architecture found in the region. Several marble panels and columns have been restored and returned to their original positions within the building. Additionally, a significant amount of pottery and metal artifacts have been unearthed.

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